Posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic distress: A longitudinal study.
In their longitudinal study, Dekel et al. (2012) address the two concepts of ramification of trauma:The pathogenic effect notion on the one hand and the salutigenic perspective on the other hand. In a sample of Israeli ex-prisoners of war and a control sample, PTSD and PTG (posttraumatic growth) were assessed and their bidirectional assiciation over time was analysed. The main finding is that growth is a response to distress and not vice versa. Individuals with PTSD had higher PTG levels across times than resilient individuals without PTSD symptoms.
Dekel, S., Ein-Dor, T., & Solomon, Z. (2012). Posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic distress: A longitudinal study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(1), 94–101. doi:10.1037/a0021865